Check Your Learning

Check Your Learning

Answer these review questions to test your knowledge before moving on to the next section. If you are unable to correctly answer these questions, you should go back and review your reading assignment.

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According to the Surgeon General, what is the greatest single factor that is responsible for optimal wellness?

Recent scientific evidence, as summarized in the Surgeon General’s report and other recent documents, suggests that a healthy lifestyle, more than any other single factor, is responsible for optimal wellness. (Page 3, Lecture Notes)

Which five areas of health and fitness contribute to wellness?

Wellness is the integration of all parts of health and fitness (intellectual, social, emotional, spiritual, and physical) that expand one’s potential to live and work effectively and to make a significant contribution to society. Wellness reflects how one feels (a sense of well-being) about life as well as one’s ability to function effectively.

Explain the impact of good physical fitness and regular physical activity on wellness.

Regular physical activity and good physical fitness have been shown to enhance quality of life in many ways. Physical fitness and exercise can help you look good, feel good, and enjoy life. Exercise helps keep body fat levels in normal ranges and is responsible for muscle development that can improve one’s perception of self. Fitness and exercise have been associated with various mental and physical health benefits that help an individual feel good and function effectively. Physical activity provides an enjoyable way to spend one’s leisure time.

Identify the five stages of readiness in adopting healthy behaviors.

The five stages are pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.

List five of the nine benefits of physical activity.

The health benefits of physical activity include:

  • Reduced risk of premature death
  • Improved cardiorespiratory health
  • Improved metabolic health
  • Improved weight and energy balance
  • Improved muskuloskeletal health
  • Increased functional ability; fall prevention
  • Improved mental health
  • Lower risk of adverse events

Identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Risk factors that increase the likelihood of cardiovascular diseases include smoking, high blood pressure (hypertension), type 2 diabetes, and high levels of certain blood lipids (such as low-density lipoprotein, or LDL, cholesterol). Low cardiorespiratory fitness is also a risk factor for heart disease.

Discuss the likelihood of a cardiac event occurring during physical activity.

Cardiac events, such as a heart attack or sudden death during physical activity, are rare. However, the risk of such cardiac events does increase when a person suddenly becomes much more active than usual. The greatest risk occurs when an adult who is usually inactive engages in vigorous-intensity activity, such as shoveling snow. People who are regularly physically active have the lowest risk of cardiac events both while being active and overall.

Describe the impact of physical activity on mental health

Physically active adults have a lower risk of depression and cognitive decline. Physical activity may also improve sleep quality. Mental health benefits have been found in people who do aerobic or a combination of aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities 3 to 5 days a week for 30 to 60 minutes at a time. Some research has shown that even lower levels of physical activity may provide some mental health benefits. Regular physical activity appears to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression for children and adolescents. Whether it improves self-esteem isn’t clear.

Explain what’s meant by a locus of control and give examples of both an external and internal locus of control.

A locus of control is a figurative place wher ea person locates the source of responsibility in his or her life.

An external locus of control could be:

  • Believing others’ actions determine your actions
  • Environmental factors-weather, location, and so on
  • Another person or social group
  • Blaming outside influences for your behavior

An internal locus of control could be

  • Self-expectations
  • Internal thoughts
  • How open one is to change

What factors may influence an individual to change his or her lifestyle?

Factors that influence an individual to change may include:

  • Increasing knowledge
  • Motivation, or having a reason to change
  • Readiness to change
  • Landmark events, such as a personal health crisis, a birthday, the birth of a child, or the death of a loved one
  • The ability to employ self-management techniques